What Causes Anal Fissures, Its Symptoms and Treatment

  posted by: Rio Dianne

 

 

While you may have heard of volcanic fissure, in anatomy there is also what we call a fissure when we refer to any groove or tear which occurs in any part of the body. There are a lot of types of fissures that can be present in the body such as brain fissures, palpebral fissures, and heel fissures found on the foot, etc.; however the most common can be seen as anal fissures. In anal fissures, there is a tear in the skin of the anal canal which can cause pain and bleeding. In addition, this may also be seen alongside anal fistula/ fistulae. Hmm, so what causes fissures in the anal lining? Let’s take a look.

What Causes Fissures

The most common cause of perianal ulcer is constipation. This is usually reported in pediatric cases wherein children are having a hard time passing out large feces thus causing a tear during bowel movement. Although, this is commonly reported in children, adults are affected as well. Another cause may be due to spasm of the anal sphincter. Pregnancy and childbirth may also suffer from this painful condition especially when a pregnant woman has given birth since the tear may extend up to the lining of the anal cavity. Other medical conditions especially those illnesses related to the gastrointestinal tract such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and even colorectal cancer may also be associated to the causes of fissures. Finally, sexually transmitted infections and engaging in anal sex are also at risk to developing fissures in the rectal area.

Symptoms of Anal Fissures

The most common symptom that manifest in the condition is the sharp pain felt when pressure is applied on the rectal area. Oftentimes, this may also be associated with bright red blood on underwear or tissue paper. The tear can also cause swelling, though it won’t be as lumpy as that of the hemorrhoids.

Treatment of Anal Fissures

Basically, treatment depends on the depth of the furrow. For severe cases, surgery via lateral sphincterotomy is the best way to cure the problem especially if the mild choices of treatment seem ineffective. But for mild cases, the following can be done for treating the condition:

  • Steroids and topical anesthetic to reduce pain when passing out bowel movement
  • Nitroglycerin to relax muscles in the anal sphincter but should be handled carefully due to its side effects
  • Botox and Calcium channel blockers to relax muscle and increase blood flow

On the other hand, prevention is always better than cure. Therefore, adding bulk on your stool through a high fiber diet as well as drinking plenty of fluids particularly water, and performing sitz bath to increase blood flow in the rectal area as well as cleaning the anus are among the home remedies you can perform to prevent pain and alleviate symptoms felt. So, there you go. This is what causes fissures, its symptoms, and treatment.

 

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